HIV Testing-Get the Facts

HIV Testing-Get the Facts

New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services/Division of HIV/AIDS Services

What is the HIV test? It’s a simple and reliable test shows if you’ve been infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

HIV is mainly spread through:

*unprotected vaginal, oral or anal sex.

*sharing infected needles or syringes.

HIV is not spread by coughing, touching or other casual contact.

Testing can help you:

*learn how to avoid HIV if you are not infected.

*get proper treatment and avoid spreading HIV to others if you are infected.

Testing is available at many places, including HIV testing centers and health clinics. For more information, contact:

*your local health department.

*the Centers for Disease Control and Preventative (CDC)

1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636)

1-888-232-6348 (TTY)

http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/

*HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Who should get tested?

Think about an HIV test: If you or your partner has ever:

*shared needles or syringes (or other drug equipment to inject drugs or for body piercing, tattooing or any other reason.

*had unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex

*had sex with other people.

*had certain illness, including TB (tuberculosis) or an SID (sexually transmitted disease).

If you are pregnant (or planning to be), testing is very important, HIV can be passed from a pregnant woman to her baby before or during birth or through breastfeeding. (Treatments can help lower the risk).

Please read: Talk to your health care provider! This folder is not a substitute for the advice of a qualified health-care provider. The photos in this folder are of models. The models have no relation to the issues presented.

How does HIV testing work?

The test checks for HIV antibodies (the immune system makes these to fight HIV). It does not tell you if you have AIDS.

A sample is taken of blood, urine or oral fluid (from cells in the mouth).

If no HIV antibodies are found, the test is “negative”. Note: In general, it takes about 3 months (up to 6 months in rare cases) for the body to make enough HIV antibodies for the test to detect.

If HIV antibodies are found, the test is “positive”. The sample is then retested to confirm the results.

You’ll receive your results at a later date. (Some testing sites may offer a rapid HIV test. It can give preliminary results during the same visit.) Be sure to find out your test results-whether they are positive or negative. It’s important to know for sure.

What do the results mean?

A counselor will explain what your test results mean. In general:

A negative result does not mean you are immune to HIV.

*You could still be infected if you have been exposed to HIV in the last 6 months. You should get tested again in a few months.

*You can still become infected in the future.

A Positive result (one positive test confirmed by a follow-up test) means you have HIV. It does not mean you have AIDS or will get sick soon, though it is possible.

An indeterminate result means the results were unclear. You will probably need to be tested again.

Choose a testing site that offers counseling before and after the test.

What to do after the test:

If you are positive, work with a supportive, experienced health care provider. Ask about:

*treatments for HIV

*testing and treatment for other STDs and for TB

*healthy diet and exercise

*rest and stress management

*proper hygiene

Avoid using alcohol, tobacco and other drugs

If you test negative, take steps to reduce your choices of getting HIV.

HIV test results are confidential. Without your written permission, only certain people-such as your health-care provider or public health officials-may see the results.

Anonymous testing is also available. Your name is never used. You are the only person who knows the results. Anonymous testing is available at some testing sites and through an FDA-approved home collection test kit. (Do not use any home testing kit that is not FDA-approved).

Protect yourself and others: no matter what your HIV test results!

Not having sex is the only sure way to prevent getting HIV and other STDs through sex.\

If you do have sex, always use a new latex condom. Condoms are not 100% effective. But they can help protect against HIV and other STDs. (Some STDs can be caused by contact with infected areas not covered by a condom.)

Be sure to use a new latex condom properly for each act of vaginal, anal or oral sex. Remember, you can get HIV (and STDs) from anal and oral sex too.

Never share needles or syringes.

If you are infected and become pregnant, treatment can reduce the risk of giving HIV to your baby. Consider an HIV test-and help stop the spread of HIV.

If you have questions about AIDS, call:

New Jersey AIDS/STD Hotline

1-800-624-2377

(All calls are strictly confidential. You do not have to give your name)

Disclaimer: This information was taken directly from the New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services/Division of HIV/AIDS Services and I give them full credit for this information. Please call them directly for more information.

 

 

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Matching your infant’s or toddler’s style to the right care setting

Matching your infant’s or toddler’s style to the right care setting: Child Care Aware

ChildCareAware.org

1-800-424-2246

This offers some guidelines on how to use what you know about your infant or toddler-like personal style and activity level-to select a child care setting that’s just right.

The question below can help your develop a profile of your child, and learn more about the type of care that might best meet your child’s needs.

What is your child’s personal style?

Pick the one that describes your child most of the time.

Adaptable:

*Flexible

*Approaches new people/situations with ease

*Good with transitions

Looking group setting providing social interaction and new experiences

Cautious:

*Thoughtful

*Approaches new people/situations cautiously

*Has difficulty with transitions

Look for:

Small group settings that are less over-whelming

Feisty:

*Passionate, feels things intensely

*Has difficulty controlling her strong feelings, wants and needs

Look for:

Programs where each child has a primary caregiver, someone who knows and understands your child (Note: All children would benefit from this)

How does your child react to the world?

Big Reactors: communicate their feelings and don’t hold back!

Looking for: Caregivers who respect your child’s emotions but help him/her to express them in a more controlled way.

Low Activity: children sit quietly, exploring through their eyes and ears.

Look for: Caregivers who engage children in sensory-rich activities.

How social is your child?

Super Social children:

*Enjoy approaching new people

*Are happiest interacting with others

Look for:

*Opportunities for group play

Take it slow:

*Are shy around strangers

*Need time to warm up

Look for:

*Programs that allow children to choose when they’d like to play with others.

Is your child tolerant of changes and challenges?

High Tolerance children:

*Aren’t bothered by changes

*Are adaptable

*Cope well with frustration

Look for:

*Mixed age settings that offer enjoyable challenges and stimulation.

Low Tolerance children:

*Are sensitive to change

*Get upset when daily routine is altered

*Are easily frustrated and impatient

Look for:

Same age settings with developmentally appropriate toys and activities.

Health and Safety Issues to Consider:

High-quality child care providers are ones that also make health and safety issues their top priority. Use the questions below as general guidelines and contact Child Care Aware for more information (1-800-424-2246):

*Are diapering, sleeping, food preparation and play areas separate?

*Are there clearly written sanitation procedures specific to each area? Are there instructions posted on proper diapering and food storage/preparation procedures?

*Do staff receive training on health and safety issues?

*Are infants and toddlers toys washed and disinfected regularly?

*Is there a sick-child policy?

*Do adults regularly conduct safety checks of all areas inside and out for potential safety hazards?

*Do staff maintain children’s personal grooming standards (for example hand washing)?

*Are all infants put to sleep on their backs?

*Is the staff equipped with appropriate first aid materials? Do staff members know basic first aid techniques (for example, CPR)?

*Do staff practice fire drills and evacuation procedures? Is there a written policy in place for evacuation procedures?

What are your child’s unique needs?

Sleep:

Look for child-friendly settings offering:

*Individual schedules

*Separate sleeping area and

*Appropriate lighting (dim) temperature (comfortable) and noise level (low)

Cultural Identity:

*Are staff interested in your family’s culture?

*Do staff speak your home language or find effective ways to communicate with you about your child?

*Are staff open to including books and other aspects of your child’s culture?

*Are staff’s values and practices consistent with your family’s?

Special Needs:

*Are staff enthusiastic about working with your child?

*Do staff understand the medical and therapeutic procedures and assistive technology necessary to support your child?

*Are staff trained and supported to work with children with special needs?

*Is the setting accessible to your child?

*Do any books/toys feature children with special needs?

*Are staff willing to help your child develop the skills that match what your family believes are important?

Responsive Care:

Among the items we’ve discussed, there is one common thread; the need for caregiving staff to adapt their approach to meet your child’s needs. This is called responsive care. To do so, caregivers need to be excellent observers of the children in their care and search for the meaning behind children’s gestures, gurgles, cries and glances. Responsive caregivers wonder why a particular behavior is occurring, come up with an educated guess and interact with the child to see if they’re correct. Is a crying baby tired? Hungry? Wet? Lonely? Frustrated?

Responsive caregivers adapt their responses based on the reason behind the behavior as well as the style of the individual child.  This ensures that all children are treated as unique with their own thoughts, feelings, preferences and needs.

Responsive Child Care Issues to Consider:

*Are children allowed to function on individual schedules?

*Do parents receive daily written reports about their children’s day (and formal progress reports twice per year)?

*Are parents free to visit at any time during the day?

*Does the caregiver adhere to state-regulated caregiver/child ratios?

*Is the caregiver’s turnover rate for families under 20%? Why do families leave?

*When caregivers leave, how do staff help children understand the transition?

*Do staff receive medical benefits, vacation leave and continuing education support?

*How do caregivers respond to child-initiated interests?

*How can parents get involved in the program?

*If you’re nursing, is the caregiver responsive and accommodating?

Child Care Aware is a program of NACCRRA. The National Association of Child Care Resource & Referral Agencies committed to helping parents find the best information on locating high-quality child care and child care resources in their community. Child Care Aware in partnership with local CCR&R’s, builds consumer awareness and supports families in making choices for the care and education of their children.

For additional resources or for help in locating your local Child Care Resource & Referral agency, call:

1-800-424-2246

TTY Line: 1-866-278-9428

ChildCareAware.org

Disclaimer: This information was taken directly from the Child Care Aware pamphlet and I give them full credit for the information. Please call them directly for more information on the program.

 

 

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Zeze Flowers 938 First Avenue New York, NY 10022

In honor of Small Business Saturday, I am sending out some of the merchants I have found on MywalkinManhattan.

Little Shop on Main Street

Zeze Flowers

938 First Avenue

New York, NY  10022

(212) 753-7767

http://zezeflowers.com/

Open: Monday-Saturday 8:00am-6:00pm/Closed on Sundays

What I love best when walking into Zeze Flowers in the Sutton Place neighborhood of Manhattan is the beauty in their window displays. They really greet you with a quiet elegance and a whimsical touch.

ZeZe Flowers V

The back of the store

From the outside of the store where colorful potted plants and garden flowers such as pansies and violets line the walk ways and potted rhododendrons and hydrangeas encase the look by the doorway, you are greeted into the sites and smells of this elegant florist on Sutton Place. Even the Man in the Moon is smiling at you when you walk in.

Once inside, the shelves are lines with all sorts of vases, bowls and elegant flower containers that are ready to be filled with their beautiful flowers. There is a variety of…

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Clean Water: It’s up to you New Jersey

Clean Water: It’s up to you New Jersey

If you litter in the street, you might as well litter in the river. Rain washes pollutants into storm drains and directly into our lakes, rivers and the ocean. So what can you do?

http://www.cleanwaternj.org

What;s the problem with litter?

When was the last time you saw someone littering? Litter just doesn’t appear-it’s the result of careless actions. No matter where litter is discarded, it usually ends up in the street, where it washes down storm drains and ultimately flows to local waterways.

Littering is not only unsightly, it’s a threat to wildlife and their habitat. Before you flick a cigarette butt out of your window or throw out a plastic bottle, consider this: Cigarette filters have been found in the stomachs of marine life, birds and other animals, because they thought it was food. Birds and marine life have also been found trapped or tangled in plastic items such as six pack drink holders, plastic bags and fishing lines. Please be considerate and protect our wildlife and our water.

You can help!

*Set up an example for others, especially children by not littering.

*Carry a litterbug in your car.

*Make sure trash cans have lids that can be securely fastened.

*If you have curbside trash collection, don’t put loose trash in boxes.

*Prevent trash cans from being knocked over by the wind and animals.

*Tie papers in a bundle before placing them in a curbside recycling bin.

*If you own a business, check dumpsters daily to see that top and side doors are closed.

*If you or a family member is involved in a civic group, scouting or recreational sports program, encourage the group to “adopt” a spot in your town and maintain it on a regular basis.

*Report areas where people have illegally dumped garbage and debris and ask that the material be removed.

*Volunteer to help organize a cleanup.

Why should you care about clean water?

Storm water pollution is one of the greatest threats to New Jersey’s clean water supply. Clean water provides access to safe drinking water, places for recreation, commercial opportunities, healthy wildlife habitats and adds beauty to our landscape. Rain washes pollution from streets, parking lots and lawns into storm drains, then directly to our streams, rivers, lakes and the ocean.

Did you know more than 60% of water pollution comes from things such as motor oil, fertilizers, pet waste and detergents? By sharing the responsibility and making small, easy changes in our daily lives, we can keep common pollutants out of storm water.

Clean Water http://www.cleanwaterNJ.org

Disclaimer: This information was taken directly from the Clean Water NJ pamphlet and I give them full credit on the information provided. Please call or email them directly for more information on the subject.

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Let’s Talk about Mammograms: American Cancer Society

Let’s talk about Mammograms: American Cancer Society

Why should I have one?

*As you get older, your chances of having breast cancer go up. Women can get breast cancer even after menopause.

*Even if you have no changes or lumps in your breast , you should get regular mammograms.

*Even if you have no breast cancer in your family, you still need mammograms.

*If you do have breast cancer, finding it early could help you live to do the things that are important to you.

I have heard it hurts:

When the plates press your breast, this “squeeze” might hurt for a minute. Some women say that it’s painful; others say that it doesn’t hurt at all.

What happens if they find something?

If something is seen on the mammogram, it doesn’t mean that you have breast cancer. You might need more tests. Then your doctor can make the best plan for you.

How much does a mammogram cost?

Most health plans and Medicare cover the cost of mammograms. If you have Medicaid or have no insurance, you may be able to get a free mammogram in your state. Check with your health department.

To get my mammogram I should call:

*My doctor or nurse

*My local health center or women’s clinic

*The American Cancer Society at 1-800-227-2345 and ask for help getting a mammogram where I live.

What is a mammogram?

A mammogram is an x-ray of your breast. It can find breast changes that are too small for you or your doctor or nurse to feel.

How is a mammogram done?

You stand in front of the x-ray machines and place your  breast between two plastic plates. Those plates press each breast to make it flat to get a good pitch.

Remember:

* Anyone can get breast cancer. But your chances go up as you get older.

*Even small breast cancers can be found with a mammogram.

*If breast cancer is found when it’s small and before it has spread, it’s easier to treat.

Steps I’m willing to take for my health:

*I will call 1-800-227-2345 to find out more about mammograms and breast cancer.

*I will ask my doctor or nurse how to get a mammogram.

*I will schedule my mammogram.

*I will call if I don’t get the results of my mammogram.

For cancer information, day to day help and emotional support, call the American Cancer Society at 1-800-227-2345. We’re here when you need us-24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

American Cancer Society

MakingStridesWalk.org

cancer.org/1-800-227-2345

1-866-228-4327

Disclaimer: This information was taken directly from the American Cancer Society pamphlet and I give them full credit for the information. Please call them directly for more information on testing.

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Looking for Child Care? We can Help! The Bergen County Office for Children

Looking for Child Care? We can Help!

The Bergen County Office for Children

The Bergen County Office for Children is your one-stop for child care information.

Contact us for:

*Information on the importance of quality child care programs and how to choose a provider.

*FREE referrals for child care in Bergen County.

*Financial assistance programs for child care to qualified applicants.

*Training to become registered to care for children in your home.

*Professional Development training for child care professionals.

Bergen County Office for Children

One Bergen County Plaza, 2nd Floor

Hackensack, NJ  07601

(201) 336-7150

http://www.co.bergen.nj.us

ofc@co.bergen.nj.us

Find us on Facebook

http://www.facebook.com/childcarebergencounty

Disclaimer: This information was taken directly from the Bergen County Office for Children pamphlet and I give them full credit for this information. Please call them directly for more information on the program.

 

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Gas: Understanding your Health

Gas: Understanding your Health

When people complain of gas, they usually mean one or more of the following:

*Belching of air from the stomach.

*Bloating of the abdomen after eating.

*Passing gas from the rectum.

Foods that contribute to gas production:

*Legumes: dried beans and peas, baked beans, kidney, black and pinto beans, refried beans, soy beans and Lima beans.

*Dairy Products: Milk, ice cream and cheese.

*Vegetables: Cabbage, radishes, onions, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cucumbers, sauerkraut, kohlrabi, asparagus, potatoes, rutabaga and turnips.

*Fruits: Prunes, apricots, apples, raisins, bananas

*Grains: Cereals, breads, pastries and all foods containing wheat and wheat products.

*Fatty Foods: Pan-fried or deep fried foods, fatty meats, rich cream sauces and gravies, pastries and any high-fat food.

*Liquids: carbonated beverages such as soda and beer, fizzy medicine.

Bloating: Bloating, that feeling of swelling in the stomach, is usually just a sensation of being “full” or “stuffed”. However, for some it can feel downright painful. For unknown reasons, bloating occurs more often in females.

It is not necessarily caused by too much gas. Usually bloating is related to the function of the digestive tract. Motility refers to the contraction that automatically move food through the digestive tract. Poor motility slows the movement of food through the stomach and intestinal tract. Disorganized motility is contractions that aren’t working together to push food forward in the digestive tract. Fatty foods can also take longer to move through the digestive system, leading to bloating.

Bloating is often a part of irritable bowel syndrome, a condition in which there is disorganized motility and contractions of the bowel. Sometimes bloating is caused by a disorder in the stomach or upper part of the digestive system. In order to determine the cause of excessive bloating, the physician may perform tests such as x-rays and endoscopy. Endoscopy is a visual examination of the esophoscopy is a visual examination of the esophagus and stomach by passing a thin, flexible, lighted tube down a patient’s throat.

When bloating happens frequently, the physician may prescribe medications to stimulate contractions in the digestive tract. Usually however bloating is not serious. It may be caused by certain foods or simply by eating too fast. A change in eating habits is often all that is needed to control this condition.

Rectal Gas:

Excessive flatus (rectal gas) is usually produced by bacteria in the colon (large intestine). There are thousands of different bacteria normally present in the colon. Most are harmless or even beneficial to digestion. However, bacteria rely on carbohydrates and sugars for their food. In the process of breaking down these nutrients, bacteria generate gases such as hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. These gases such as hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. These gases are usually reabsorbed and do not cause excessive flatus. But everyone digests foods differently and some people have disorders that interfere with the normal digestive process.

For example, lactose is a sugar found in milk. It requires the enzyme lactase for digestion. A person with lactase deficiency may not be able to digest lactose properly, therefore the lactose passes undigested into the colon, where gas-forming bacteria thrive on them, generating a large amount of gas. Some foods, such as legumes, cabbage and certain types of bran contain carbohydrates that the stomach and small intestine cannot digest. But they can be digested by the bacteria in the colon, which break down these carbohydrates for food and release gas in the process.

For people frequently bothered with excessive gas, a special diet may be recommended to identify and eliminate the offending foods. A list of foods that help you figure out if a food is causing excessive gas.

Gas Elimination Trial Diet:

First, check with a physician to rule out any other medical causes for excess gas. The physician can also give advice on maintaining adequate nutrition.

This trial diet may be conducted in one of two ways:

  1. Eliminate one category of gas-producing foods for at least a week. If there is no reduction in gas, add back that food and try eliminating a different category. Follow this procedure until reaching a level of gas that is tolerable.
  2. Eliminate all categories from the diet for three or four days. Then add one food at a time back to the diet. Continue to include this food in the diet for three or four days. If it causes no problems, it may be kept in the diet. If it does cause gas, eliminate it and go on to the next food.

 

Sometimes the food may not have to be completely eliminated; smaller amounts may be tolerated. For example, many people complain that adding fiber to their diet causes gas. Ye, this problem seems to be reduced if the fiber is added gradually over a period of several weeks. These procedures require time and patience but can be very effective in controlling an uncomfortable problem. Regardless of whether the trail works or not, remember that rectal gas is not harmful to the body.

Belching:

Everyone belches occasionally, especially after eating. However, some people belch frequently and it becomes annoying and embarrassing. Belching is the result of too much air in the stomach. It gets there by swallowed with food or liquid. Then the stomach releases it back up the esophagus in a belch. The more a person swallows, the more air goes into the stomach and the more belching. Some people are known as air swallowers. They gulp large amounts of air when eating or drinking. It may be that they produce larger quantities of saliva that requires frequent swallowing or they just have a nervous habit of swallowing more often.

Occasionally it is necessary to treat excessive belching with medicine. But most patients can reduce belching by following simple lifestyle changes to correct the causes.

Hints for Reducing Belching:

Air swallowers should concentrate on trying to reduce the number of times they swallow.

*Avoid pipes, cigarettes, cigars, chewing gum and hard candy, avoid sipping through straws and bottles with narrow mouths and avoid dentures that do not fit properly. All of these can increase saliva and/or air swallowing.

*Avoid foods that contain air such as carbonated beverages and whipped cream. Fizzy medicines, such as Alka-Seltzer, also add air to the stomach.

*Eat slowly. Gulping and beverages adds large amounts of air to the stomach.

Smelly Flatus and Prebiotics:

When you talk about intestinal gas, it almost always refers to either bloating of the abdomen as my occur after eating or rectal gas and flatus. It is now well known that the large intestine or colon has trillions upon trillions of bacteria. These bacteria rely on fiber and other left-over nutrients from food we eat for their own nutrition and growth. Various gases are produced in the colon including hydrogen and methane. These are harmless, odorless gases which are simply expelled as flatus. Another gas is called hydrogen sulfide. This sulfide gas is what gives flatus its smelly odor. The bacteria that make this unwelcomed gas need a neutral environment-neither acidic or alkaline.

Let’s talk about prebiotics. A prebotic is a plant fiber that beneficial colon bacteria use to grow. In so doing, they create an acidic condition in the colon whereby the sulfide causing bacteria do not grow. Flatus no longer stinks. The key is to increase the amount of prebotic fibers from foods or a dietary supplement until this point is reached. Prebiotics do not decrease the amount of flatus. They will decrease or eliminate the smell. Prebiotic foods can be found at prebiotin.com and a dietary supplement, Prebiotin, can be obtained at the same place.

Summary:

Gas may refer to belching, abdominal bloating or rectal gas. For some people it may be simply an embarrassment, while for others it can be quite uncomfortable. However, it is rarely a serious medical problem. A physician can help a person suffering from gas find simple solutions to significantly reduce the problem.

Disclaimer: This information was taken from the Meducate by GI Supply and I give them full credit for the information. If you need anymore information on the subject, please check out their website at http://www.gi-supply.com.

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