A Gift from Captain Buscio-Statistics tell the Story

To all First Responders,

This exam is free to all of us. Please take the time to take a full check up every year as part of your health plan.

The Brothers of The Hasbrouck Heights Fire Department NJ

A Gift from Captain Buscio-Statistics tell the Story

Statistics tell the Story:

When it comes to the relationship between firefighters and heart attacks, the statistics speak for themselves:

*Despite fluctuations, the trend in the proportion of firefighter fatalities from heart attacks has remained constant since 1984.

*More than one-half of all fatal heart attacks strike firefighters while on scene of a fire or non-fire emergency.

Firefighter victims may not have had a previous medical history of heart disease. For this reason getting a comprehensive medical evaluation that is specific to your profession is not just for peace of mind. It is absolutely necessary.

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For additional details on this statistical data, visit the United States Fire Administration at the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Website, http://www.usfa.fema.gov.

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How a gift from Captain Buscio’ Works:

All fire departments whose fire fighters and officers are participating in the program throughout the State of New Jersey…

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Learning to read & write begins at birth


Learning to read & write begins at birth: a guide to early literacy in child care.

How your child learns to read and write beings with you.

You help your child every day without even thinking about it when you sing a lullaby to your baby, say a silly rhyme to your toddler or read your child a favorite bedtime story.

You know these things make your child feel loved, safe and happy. Did you also know you are helping your child learn skills needed for reading, writing and school success? You and your family are always your child’s first and best teachers. Build on what you do at home by making sure that your child is having fun with reading and writing in child care, too.

There are five simple steps to literacy success:

  1. Call the experts: this provides information on how you and your child’s caregiver can best build your child’s early reading and writing skills. A call yo your local Child Care Resource & Referral agency (CCR&R) can give additional information about literacy resources. Learning to read and write doesn’t happen all at once.

2. Learn About Literacy: Learning to read and write is like learning to walk. You can see it happening: first, your child rolls over, then inches along the floor and eventually crawls. But when your child takes the first step, It’s magic!

While it feels like magic when it finally (happens usually around ages 5 to 7) , reading and writing is a process just like walking.

Step by Step

A strong connection between what your child learns in child care and at home helps strengthen learning.

Step by Step

First, your baby makes sounds, imitates your facial expressions and learns that hearing “mama” means “my mother”. Then you begin to notice your child point at and name pictures in the books you read together. At first you hold the book for your baby but soon your child is holding the book right side up and turning pages without help. This is the beginning of learning how to read and write-often called early literacy.

It’s more than the ABC’s

Early literacy means much more than just reading and writing. It includes babbling, talking, recognizing letters and sounds and knowing what various pictures and signs mean. Early literary is also scribbling, drawing pictures, memorizing and pretend-reading.

What about learning two languages?

Great! Young children are very good at learning more than one language. In addition to information in this brochure, there are special ways that parents and child care providers can help children who are learning two languages. To find out more, call your  local CCR&R or contact Child Care Aware.

A multi-lingual environment. Your child will learn two languages best if he or she knows that both languages are important and valued. Children also need to have lots of fun and meaningful chances to talk, read and pretend-write in both languages.

Call 1-800-424-2246 or visit ChildCareAware.org to find the CCR&R in your area.

3. Check out your Child Care:

Evaluate the early literacy activities and materials your child’s caregiver offers. Use the Early Literacy Child Care Checklist below to help you.

For all ages:

*Does the caregiver have special training in early childhood education, First Aid and CPR?

*Has the caregiver been in the same program or provided care in the home for at least a year?

*Is one caregiver caring for just a few children (low child/adult ratio)?

*If there is more than one caregiver in the setting, is the number of children in the group still fairly small (group/size)?

*If your child is in a child care center or family child care home, does the caregiver have national accreditation and state licensure (e.g. National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) or National Association for Family Child Care (NAFCC)?

*Does the caregiver welcome drop-in visits and parent ideas and involvement?

*Are the planned things for children to do as well as lots of time for free plays?

*Are there  planned things for children to do as well as lots of time for free play?

*Are materials such as books, blocks, toys and art supplies available to children all day long?

*Does the place look clean and safe and is hand washing done often?

*Does the caregiver have written policies and procedures, including emergency plans?

*Does the caregiver have references?

*Have satisfactory criminal history background checks been conducted on each adult present?

*Has the program been inspected by the licensing agency within the last 12 months?

For Babies (Birth to one year):

Does the caregiver:

*Hold, touch and make eye contact with babies a lot?

*Use words when responding to babies crying?

*Talk about what is happening during routines, like “Let’s wash our hands. Here’s the soap.”

*Read books with rhymes, name things and allow the babies to pat the pictures?

*Play games like peek-a-boo with babies?

*Sing to babies?

Are there:

*Boards and soft book that show different cultures, physical abilities and types of families accessible for babies to reach, hold and look at most of the day?

*Times when music is played during the day?

*Rattles, squeak toys and push and pull toys available to babies most of the day?

*Pictures of babies families and a mirror so babies can see themselves?

For Toddlers (One and Two year olds):

In addition to the above, does the caregiver:

*Listen to. repeat and encourage toddlers words?

*Do finger plays, rhyming and counting games?

*Let toddlers turn pages of board books and ask toddlers to name pictures?

*Help toddlers pretend-play things like “going to the grocery store”?

Are there:

*Soft, cozy places for toddlers to read stories to themselves and their stuffed animals?

*Art supplies, like big crayons and paper out for toddlers to use during the day?

*Puppets, play phones and dolls out for toddlers to use during the day?

*Toddler’s drawings with their names written on it, hung up where they can see them?

Preschoolers (Three to Five years old):

Does the caregiver:

*Read books with children every day-one-on-one and in small groups so everyone can see?

*Give children time to look at books by themselves or with each other every day?

*Help children recognize letters in books and things they see all around them, like signs, calendars and directions?

*Help children sound out letter and words?

*Talk and listen to children throughout the day?

*Encourage children to talk to each other?

*Play games like “Simon Says” and “Mother May I” with the children?

*Listen to children’s stories and poems and write them down for children?

* Giver children chances to pretend-write things like dairies, recipes and shopping lists?

*Praise children for their efforts at pretend writing, spelling and copying letters?

Are there:

*Various books and magazines about things like different families and cultures, animals, counting and the alphabet?

*Many things with print where children can see them, like labels on pictures and containers, signs and a big alphabet?

*Objects that add reading and writing into playtime, like a phone book, message pad and markers near a play phone or a book about trucks or maps near play cars and trucks?

*Special areas for writing and drawing with things like books, paper, crayons, makers and chalk and a chalk board?

4. Partner with your provider:

Visiting and participating in events at child care sends a strong message. It tells your child and your child’s caregiver that you think what your child is doing and learning is important.

5 Simple things you can do:

*Talk to your child’s caregiver about things listed on the Early Literacy Child Care Checklist and work together on adding literacy materials and activities into your child’s daily child routine.

*Visit your child at child care and read a book aloud.

*Offer to go on a field trip to the local library.

*Have parent-caregiver meetings regularly and ask questions about what your child is talking about and reading.

*Be there for your child’s birthday party and pick out family pictures with your child that you can label and share at the party.

4 easy after work options:

*Take a few minutes to talk with your child’s caregiver at drop-off and pick up times.

*Share information about your child’s latest favorite book or the new words your child is learning.

*Send notes that can be read out loud with your child at child care-and ask your child’s caregiver to help your child “write” notes back to you.

*Help your child write names on pictures your child makes for your caregiver or another child at child care.

*Talk with your child about what happened in child care every day.

5. Read, Repeat and Relax:

What you do with your child at home will make the biggest difference in how ready your child is for reading and writing.

Again please!

Children like to hear the same story repeatedly. So have fun picking out a new picture or letter to talk about each time or tell the story a little wrong so your child will say, “That’s not what it says!”

Whether you are reading with your baby or preschooler, don’t rush. Take time to read and talk about the book together.

Have fun with literacy. Read, talk, sing and play with your child-and don’t worry! Young children learn at different rates. Your child will want to read and write it if is a fun and natural part of what you do each day.

Give praise freely. Encouraging your baby and young child during the early literacy stages gives your child the confidence to read and write later. Before you know it, your child will be reading aloud to you!

Help with all your child care needs.

Your CCR&R agency can also help you with evaluating and finding child care, financial assistance  and other resources.

For additional resources or help in finding your local Child Care Resource & Referral agency (CCR&R) call:

1-800-424-2246/TTY 1-866-278-9428/ChildCareAware.org

Disclaimer: This information was take from the ChildCare Aware pamphlet and I give them full credit for the information. Please call the above numbers for more information on the program.





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Managing Pain

Managing Pain

Learn more at content.accenthealth.com/pain

At some point, everyone feels pain. It might be the result of an injury, surgery or overuse. Or it might be related to a medical condition such as arthritis or fibromyalgia. Whatever the cause, pain can interfere with your ability to sleep, work and enjoy life.

Pain often goes away quickly. But pain can also last for many months and sometimes years. This is called chronic pain. Today there are many options to help you find relief.


Talk with your doctor:

Whether this is your first visit or a follow up ask your doctor.

*What is causing my pain?

*How long should I expect the pain to last?

*Are there any lifestyle changes that might improve my pain?

*Are there any alternative therapies that might help?

*What should I do if there pain gets worse?

Tell your doctor if :

*The locations type or severity of your pain has changed since your last visit.

*You think your medications are causing any side effects.

*You are trying any alternative treatments like acupuncture or taking an herbal remedy.

What is pain?

Pain is an unpleasant feeling of discomfort, often caused by illness or injury.

Pain can serve as a warning that something is wrong. Pain can also help with healing. It tells you to avoid touching a wound or using a joint that’s on the mend. Pain can also be felt for no clear reason.

There are two main types of pain:

*Nocieceptive pain: This is that occurs when body tissue is injured. Examples include burns, sprains, broken bones or inflammation from an infection or arthritis.

When you band your finger, the signal starts at the very tips of the nerve cells, travels to and up the spinal cord and into a part of the brain called the thalamus.

The thalamus sends the signals out to several parts of the brain including those that control touch, emotion, physical reaction and memory.

*Neuropathic pain: This kind of pain, also called nerve pain, happens when the nerves themselves become irritated. Nerves that were once a mere messenger of pain become a source of pain.

Conditions that cause neuropathic pain include a “pinched nerve” (like sciatica), diabetes, shingles and multiple sclerosis.

Understanding types of pain:

Pain can be classified by how long it lasts:

*Transient pain: this is a sensation that accompanies a bang, bump or nick as well as the occasional headache. It lasts for a few seconds to a few hours.

*Intermittent pain: this type of pain comes and goes.

*Acute pain: Acute pain lasts from a few minutes to a few weeks. It usually results from disease, inflammation or injury. Examples include burns and sprains. Its cause can often be identified and treatment. It usually goes away once the injury or disease has healed.

*Chronic pain: Chronic pain lasts for months or eve n years. Conditions that cause chronic pain include arthritis, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and others.

Diagnosing pain:

When diagnosing pain, the first and most important task is to rule out serious causes, such as heart disease or cancer.

Your doctor will typically ask several questions about your pain, including:

*When it started

*Its location

*Its intensity

*Other symptoms that accompany it

*Its impact on your daily activities

*Any treatments you’ve already tried

The doctor will perform a physical examinations. He or she may also order blood tests or imagining tests, like an x-ray, to help identify what is causing the pain. It isn’t always easy to identify the cause of pain.

Describing your pain:

Your doctor may ask you to rate your pain:

When your doctor asks you to describe your pain, try to use descriptive words such as:

*sharp/stabbing, dull, hot/burning, cold/freezing/sensitive, tender, itchy, shooting, stinging, numb, tingling, cramping/squeezing, radiating/spreading, throbbing/pounding, aching, and gnawing/biting.

Your doctor may ask these questions:

Is the pain steady or does it come and go? Does it get better and worse or stay the same? What relieves or worsens the pain? Is the pain better or worse at different times of day? Does it vary based on whether you are active or inactive?

Keep a pain journal:

Try to record the frequency, intensity and duration of your pain in a pain journal. It can help you and your doctor identify what triggers your pain and track whether or not it improves over time.

Medicines for pain:

When your aren’t in pain, it’s easier to work, care for family, participate in daily activities and enjoy life.


Medications used primarily to relieve pain are called analgesics. Nonprescription or over the counter pain relievers are generally used for mild to moderate pain. Prescription analgesics are used for moderate to severe pain or pain that doesn’t respond to over-the-counter medications. There are two common classes of analgescis:

*Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) relieve pain and also reduce inflammation. Some are available over the counter; some require a prescription.

*Acetaminophen helps relieve pain but does not reduce inflammation.

Anticonvulsants and antidepressants:

These drugs, mainly used to treat seizure disorders and depression are sometimes used to treat pain.

Opioids (narcotics):

Opioids relieve pain. But they must be taken with care because they can be addictive.

Other treatments:

Topical pain relievers are applied to the skin.

Creams and gels: These contain a wide variety of substances. Ones that contain salicylates reduce inflammation. Others contain “counterirritants,”such as menthol or eucalyptus, which provide a cooling or warming sensation intended to distract from the pain.

Corticosteriod shots:

These shots are injected into an inflamed part of your body such as a joint. The cortiscosteroid is usually mixed with a local anesthetic.

Nerve block:

Nerve block used drugs, chemical or surgical techniques to block the transmission of pain messages between specific areas of the body and the brain.


In some cases, surgery may be needed to relieve pain.

Treating pain without drugs:

Some nondrug treatments can relieve pain.

These may be used instead of medications or in addition to it:

Cold and heat:

*Cold can reduce swelling and decrease pain. Apply a store bought cold pack, a bag of frozen vegetables or ice cubes wrapped in a towel to the affected area-for no more than 20 minutes at a time, four to eight times a day.

*Heat can relax muscles and ease pain. Try moist compresses, hot packs, warm baths and showers, hot whirlpools and heat lamps to temporarily relieve pain. Don’t use heat or cold for too long.

Pain relieving devices:

Special devices can help support painful joints, relieve pressures on irritated nerves and soothe aches and pains. They include splints and braces canes, crutches, walkers and shoe inserts.

Longer-term pain relief options:

*Physical and occupational therapies:

Physical therapists use techniques and exercises to help ease pain and improve strength and range of motion. They customize programs to fit your goals. Occupational therapists help improve your ability to perform activities of daily living, such as dressing, bathing and eating.


An exercise program can help relive chronic pain. It should include regular, gentle aerobic activity, stretching and range of motion exercises and strengthening exercises. Extra weight on joints can cause pain. If you are overweight, losing weight may help relieve pain.

*Alternative therapies:

Therapies that address the whole person, including the mind and emotions, can help restore a sense of control over pain. Some techniques include:

*acupuncture, biofeedback, breathing exercises, chiropractic, cognitive behavioral therapy, hypnosis, massage therapy, mediation, progressive muscle relaxation, yoga and tai chi.

Common kinds of pain:

Finding the right treatment often takes time and patience. Here are some of the most common types of pain:

*Shingles nerve pain:

Shingles is painful, blistering rash. For people, shingles pain remains long after the rash is gone. This continued nerve pain is called postherpetic neuralgia. Posttherpetic neuralgia is a difficult type of pain to treat. Certain medications may help.

A shingles vaccine is recommended for older adults. The vaccine reduces the risk of getting shingles. It also reduces the risk of postherpetic neuralgia if you do get shingles.

*Diabetic neuropathy:

Diabetic neuropathy is nerve damage caused by diabetes. It most often affects the nerves in the feet. In addition to pain, it also causes numbness. It increase the risk of serious foot injury. Keeping your blood sugar close to the normal range helps prevent diabetic neuropathy.

People experience pain differently based on the type of pain and how their brain responds.

*Low back pain:

Most people with back pain get better within a week or two with a combination of brief rest, cold packs and pain relief medication. But for some people, low back pain persists for weeks or months.

If you have or periodic bouts of low back pain, you may find relief with:

*exercise, including yoga and tai chi

*physical therapy, particularly back-strengthening exercises

*therapeutic massage

*topical pain relievers

*Abdominal pain:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can cause pain, diarrhea, bloating, cramps or constipation. Avoiding foods containing a group of poorly digested sugars and fibers called FODMAPs may help. Probiotic supplements might be worth trying, too.

Other approaches include cognitive behavioral therapy, antidepressants and mind-body relaxation therapies.

Other common kinds of pain:


Osteoarthritis causes stiffness and pain in the joints, especially the knees and hips. Osteoarthritis  develops when cartilage-the connective tissue that covers bones and acts as a cushion-deteriorates. Over time, the space between the bones narrows and the surfaces of the bones change shape. This eventually damages the joint. A combination of medicines, weight loss and physical therapy can help relieve osteoarthritis pain.


Fibromyalgia causes pain and stiffness in multiple tender points throughout the body . It leaves people feeling achy and fatigued.  People with fibromyalgia may be more sensitive to pain than others. Medications to decrease symptoms often include the same drugs prescribed for nerve pain, such as antidepressants and antiseizure medications.

Nondrug therapies, including alternating cold and heat; tai chi, yoga and other forms of exercise; acupuncture and therapeutic massage can also be helpful.

Additional types of pain:

Cancer Pain:

Pain often occurs when cancer spreads to or presses on bones, nerves or organs. The type of cancer you have and how far it has spread usually determines whether you have pain, the amount of pain you have and how it can be treated.

Migraine headaches:

Migraine headaches are intense, throbbing headaches that tend to affect one side of the head. They can be excruciating and debilitating. Many migraine sufferers also experience nausea and vomiting or become sensitive to light and sound.

Migraines are best managed with medications to:

*head off symptoms if you have a warning (aura) before the headache starts.

*relieve symptoms when you have a migraine

*prevent migraines from occurring

Avoiding migraine triggers also helps. These are foods, drinks, smells, activities or situations that can set off migraines.

Get more information on managing pain:


Disclaimer: This information was taken from the AccentHealth pamphlet on Managing Pain and I give them full credit for the information. Please contact them for more information.


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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Learn more at content.accenthealth.com/copd

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease that makes it harder to breathe. Some people have one of two types of COPD chronic bronchitis or emphysema. Others have a combination of both. COPD is often stable for periods and then suddenly flares up.

If you smoke, quitting now can keep COPD from getting worse. With medication, exercise and other steps, you can live well for decades with COPD.

Talk with your doctor:

Whether this is your first visit or a follow up, ask your doctor:

*Do I have chronic bronchitis, emphysema or both?

*Should I be on any additional medication or therapies to help my breathing?

*Am I using my inhaler correctly?

*Should I get the flu shot and pneumococcal vaccine?

*What are the warning signs that my COPD is flaring up?

*What should I do if I get a lung infection?

*Would I benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation?

Tell your doctor if:

*You have had any respiratory infections since your last visit

*Your activity level has decreased due to trouble breathing

*You think your medications are causing any side effects

What is COPD?

COPD stand for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COPD is a lung disease that makes it hard to breathe. COPD is a lung disease that makes it  hard to breathe. COPD includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, two lung conditions that often share a common cause-smoking.

Normally, when you take a breath, air travels from you nose and mouth through your windpipe and into the bronchi. Bronchi are air passages that branch off into each lung. The bronchi branch further into thousands of smaller, thinner tubes called bronchioles. These tubes end in grape like clusters of small, round air sacs called alveoli.

Tiny blood vessels, called capillaries, absorb oxygen from the air through the walls of the alveoli and deliver it to cells throughout the body. Carbon dioxide moves in the opposite direction. It passes out of the bloodstream and back into the alveoli and is then eliminated from the body when you breathe out.

How COPD affects the lungs:

In COPD less air flows in and out of the airways for several reasons:

*The airways and air sacs can’t expand and contract as they should.

*The walls between air sacs break down. This means less surface area for oxygen to pass into the capillaries and the rest of the body.

*The walls of the airways become thick and inflamed.

*The airways make more mucus, making it hard for air to flow freely.

Normal Airways:

In healthy lungs, millions of alveoli exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide. A fine web of blood vessels picks up oxygen to be used by tissues and organs throughout the body.

Airways in COPD:

In patients with emphysema, air sacs are damaged and stale air is trapped. When chronic bronchitis is also present, the bronchioles are narrowed and clogged by mucus.

Focus on: Chronic Bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis develops when the bronchi are irritated day after day.

The body’s immune system attacks the irritants in an effort to destroy them. This immune response can trigger overproduction of mucus along with inflammation and swelling of the airways.

Inflammation narrows the airways. Mucus blocks them further. Like traffic crawling on a congested road, air moves slowly in and out of your lungs. You may wheeze as you work hard to breathe and cough to clear mucus from your airways.

People with chronic bronchitis find it increasingly difficult to exercise and remain active.

Symptoms of chronic bronchitis include:

*ongoing cough with mucus


*shortness of breath

Focus on: Emphysema

Emphysema affects the lung tissue itself.

This is different from chronic bronchitis which affects the passages that carry air to and from the lungs.

Emphysema destroys the walls between the tiny air sacs (alveoli). This leaves the lungs less able to deliver oxygen to the bloodstream and remove carbon dioxide from the bloodstream.

Lung tissue also loses its resilience, which prevents it from stretching and contracting properly. When  the lungs lack resilience, they cannot fully push out air. Instead, some air remains trapped in the air sacs.

Symptoms of emphysema include:

*Shortness of breath

*Weight loss

*Loss of muscle

The main symptoms of emphysema is breathlessness. At first, you have difficulty catching your breath during activity. Over time, you may feel breathless after taking a few steps or when sitting or lying down.

How is COPD diagnosed?

Your story of your health and how you are feeling can alert your doctor to test you for COPD.

Medical history and physical exam:

Your doctor will ask whether you smoke. He or she may also ask whether you have breathed in toxic chemicals on the job.

The doctor will need to know how easily you become short of breath and when. Do you have trouble climbing stairs? How long can you walk before you have to stop and rest?

Next, the doctor will listen to your lungs through a stethoscope for telltale signs of COPD.

Laboratory test:

Lab tests can show how much COPD has affected your lungs ability to take up oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide.

*Pulse oximetry: the doctor places a probe on your finger that measures whether the oxygen level in your blood is normal or low.

*Arterial blood gas: this blood test measures how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood.

Pulmonary function tests:

Pulmonary function tests show how well your lungs work. You breathe in and out through a spirometer, a tube that is connected to various machines. These tests measure two things:

*Forced vital capacity shows the maximum amount of air you can breathe out in one breath.

*Forced expiratory volume in one second is the maximum amount of air you can exhale in one second. If it low (below 80%), you may benefit from taking COPD medications. If it is very low (less than 50%) ask your doctors if you should see a lung specialist.

Pulmonary function tests are simple and painless.


If you have emphysema, your lungs may appear larger than normal on a chest x-ray and hold abnormally large amounts of air. Your diaphragm (the main muscle involved in breathing) may appear flattened. If you have chronic bronchitis, a chest x-ray is likely to look normal.

Smoking is the main cause of COPD:

Most people who develop COPD smoke.

*Smoking: in most people with COPD, years of smoking irritate the respiratory tract. The body’s immune system sends out inflammatory cells to attack the irritants. This triggers a cascade of events that damages the airways and lung tissue.

Breathing in secondhand smoke over a long period of time also increases the risk of developing COPD.

*Other causes: Inherited problems can cause COPD. So can long-term exposure to toxic fumes, industrial smoke and dust.

Taking control of COPD:

If you smoke, quitting is the most important thing you can do to stop COPD from getting worse. Smoking leads to both physical and behavioral addiction. So it is hard habit to break.

Medications and therapy can help you overcome physical addiction to nicotine.

Quit-smoking medications:

Nicotine-replacement medications deliver a low dose of nicotine into your bloodstream to ease or erase withdrawal symptoms. Gradually you wean yourself off tobacco and nicotine replacement.

Nicotine replacement products are available in several forms:



*nasal sprays



Two other prescription quit-smoking medications don’t contain nicotine. They act on the brain to decrease cravings, withdrawal symptoms or both.

Behavioral therapy:

Therapy either one on one with a counselor or group counseling with people who have quit or are trying to can help you break long-held habits.

Treating COPD

Medications and other treatments won’t cure COPD. But they can help breathe better and remain active.


Bronchodilators open up the airways. They are the cornerstone of COPD treatment. Once you begin using a bronchodilator, you should have less shortness of breath and more capacity for exercise.

Long-acting bronchodilators are used every day to keep airways open and relaxed. Short acting bronchodilators are used mainly for quick relief during a flare-up. Bronchodilators are usually inhaled.


Corticosteroids are powerful drugs that curb inflammation and help open airways. They are available in inhalers and as pills.

Inhaled corticosteroids are effective but can increase the risk of pneumonia. They are mainly for people with severe COPD or those who have frequent lung infections.

Corticosteroids in pill form can cause even more serious side effects. But they can effectively control flare-ups.


Antibiotics are used to treat lung infections caused by bacteria. People with COPD often need antibotics for respiratory infections. Early treatment is very important.

Oxygen Therapy:

As COPD becomes more severe, the oxygen level in your blood may become dangerously low. If this happens to you, breathing in extra oxygen can help you live longer. And it can help you avoid problems that can occur when your body isn’t getting enough oxygen on its own.

Some oxygen delivery systems are small and lightweight enough to use while doing regular activities such as shopping or running errands.


Surgery may help if you have emphysema. Lung volume reduction surgery involves removing some damaged lung tissue. This gives healthier lung tissue more room to expand and contract. It also helps the lungs work more effectively.

A lung transplant may be an option for people with severe emphysema who cannot benefit from other types of lung surgery.

Pulmonary Rehabilitation:

Pulmonary rehabilitation can help individuals with COPD control their symptoms.

Rehabilitation can improve quality of life, helping individuals carry out day to day activities with greater ease and independence. Rehabilitation includes:

Exercise therapy: Exercise particularly aerobic exercise increases your endurance and strengthens your muscles.

Breathing retraining: Rehabilitation teaches you to adjust your breathing so you don’t run out of air when you are active. This should improve your stomach and decrease breathlessness.

Education: A nurse may demonstrate how to sue an inhaler correctly. Or you may get some tips on how to use oxygen therapy most effectively.

Psychological support: Ongoing breathing difficulties can lead to depression and anxiety. Therapy can help you sort through your feelings and teach stress reduction techniques to help you cope.

Get Immunized:

COPD increases your risk of lung infections. These infections can make COPD symptoms worse. Such flare up are called exacerbations. If you have COPD, get a flu shot every year. Request the injectable flu shot, which contains killed virus, rather than the nasal spray vaccine, which is made with live, weakened flu virus.

You should also get the pneumococcal vaccine, which protects against the most common type of pneumonia.

Have a COPD Action Plan:

Your doctor should discuss an action plan with you in case you have an exacerbation. If you have symptoms of increased cough with thick, discolored mucus, particularly if you have shortness of breath, contact your doctor right away. Your doctor right away. Your doctor will determine if you need an antibiotic, oral corticosteroids or both to manage your symptoms.

Get more information on COPD: content.accenthealth.com/copd

Disclaimer: This information was taken from the AccentHealth pamphlet on COPD and i give them full credit for this information. Please call or email them at the above numbers for more information.





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Bergecco-Parc Consulting Inc Film Team Project

via Bergecco-Parc Consulting Inc Film Team Project

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Did you know: Firefighters are at an increased risk of developing cancer

Please check with your doctor and make sure to have regular visits.

The Brothers of The Hasbrouck Heights Fire Department NJ

Did you know: Firefighters are at an increased risk of developing cancer-Leukemia & Lymphoma Society

Firefighters are at an increased risk of developing cancer.

There are steps that firefighters can take to reduce the risk.


All firefighters, whether they are career or volunteer, put their own lives at risk to save others. Multiple studies have found that firefighters are at an increased risk for several types of cancer due to the smoke and hazardous chemicals they are exposed to in the line to duty.

Why is there an increased risk for cancer?

*Homes and buildings contain synthetic and plastic materials that create more smoke when burning than natural materials. They release polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) many of which can cause cancer. Cancer-causing agents are called ‘carcinogens.”

*Firefighters may also encounter other known carcinogens (such as asbestos and diesel exhaust) when on the job.

*Carcinogens are both inhaled and absorbed…

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HIV Testing-Get the Facts

HIV Testing-Get the Facts

New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services/Division of HIV/AIDS Services

What is the HIV test? It’s a simple and reliable test shows if you’ve been infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

HIV is mainly spread through:

*unprotected vaginal, oral or anal sex.

*sharing infected needles or syringes.

HIV is not spread by coughing, touching or other casual contact.

Testing can help you:

*learn how to avoid HIV if you are not infected.

*get proper treatment and avoid spreading HIV to others if you are infected.

Testing is available at many places, including HIV testing centers and health clinics. For more information, contact:

*your local health department.

*the Centers for Disease Control and Preventative (CDC)

1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636)

1-888-232-6348 (TTY)


*HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Who should get tested?

Think about an HIV test: If you or your partner has ever:

*shared needles or syringes (or other drug equipment to inject drugs or for body piercing, tattooing or any other reason.

*had unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex

*had sex with other people.

*had certain illness, including TB (tuberculosis) or an SID (sexually transmitted disease).

If you are pregnant (or planning to be), testing is very important, HIV can be passed from a pregnant woman to her baby before or during birth or through breastfeeding. (Treatments can help lower the risk).

Please read: Talk to your health care provider! This folder is not a substitute for the advice of a qualified health-care provider. The photos in this folder are of models. The models have no relation to the issues presented.

How does HIV testing work?

The test checks for HIV antibodies (the immune system makes these to fight HIV). It does not tell you if you have AIDS.

A sample is taken of blood, urine or oral fluid (from cells in the mouth).

If no HIV antibodies are found, the test is “negative”. Note: In general, it takes about 3 months (up to 6 months in rare cases) for the body to make enough HIV antibodies for the test to detect.

If HIV antibodies are found, the test is “positive”. The sample is then retested to confirm the results.

You’ll receive your results at a later date. (Some testing sites may offer a rapid HIV test. It can give preliminary results during the same visit.) Be sure to find out your test results-whether they are positive or negative. It’s important to know for sure.

What do the results mean?

A counselor will explain what your test results mean. In general:

A negative result does not mean you are immune to HIV.

*You could still be infected if you have been exposed to HIV in the last 6 months. You should get tested again in a few months.

*You can still become infected in the future.

A Positive result (one positive test confirmed by a follow-up test) means you have HIV. It does not mean you have AIDS or will get sick soon, though it is possible.

An indeterminate result means the results were unclear. You will probably need to be tested again.

Choose a testing site that offers counseling before and after the test.

What to do after the test:

If you are positive, work with a supportive, experienced health care provider. Ask about:

*treatments for HIV

*testing and treatment for other STDs and for TB

*healthy diet and exercise

*rest and stress management

*proper hygiene

Avoid using alcohol, tobacco and other drugs

If you test negative, take steps to reduce your choices of getting HIV.

HIV test results are confidential. Without your written permission, only certain people-such as your health-care provider or public health officials-may see the results.

Anonymous testing is also available. Your name is never used. You are the only person who knows the results. Anonymous testing is available at some testing sites and through an FDA-approved home collection test kit. (Do not use any home testing kit that is not FDA-approved).

Protect yourself and others: no matter what your HIV test results!

Not having sex is the only sure way to prevent getting HIV and other STDs through sex.\

If you do have sex, always use a new latex condom. Condoms are not 100% effective. But they can help protect against HIV and other STDs. (Some STDs can be caused by contact with infected areas not covered by a condom.)

Be sure to use a new latex condom properly for each act of vaginal, anal or oral sex. Remember, you can get HIV (and STDs) from anal and oral sex too.

Never share needles or syringes.

If you are infected and become pregnant, treatment can reduce the risk of giving HIV to your baby. Consider an HIV test-and help stop the spread of HIV.

If you have questions about AIDS, call:

New Jersey AIDS/STD Hotline


(All calls are strictly confidential. You do not have to give your name)

Disclaimer: This information was taken directly from the New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services/Division of HIV/AIDS Services and I give them full credit for this information. Please call them directly for more information.



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